عنوان مقاله [English]
In the traditional and modern psychoanalysis era, some of the concepts and theories have a direct relationship with the concept of unconscious. In this case, the defense mechanisms of Freud were presented in order to explain the defense performance of psychological system against anxiety and stress. This research explores the psychological defense mechanisms in "Hanging Bridge" novel by" Mohammad Reza Bayrami. Most of his works are more in realistic style. This novel is about war and considered as a social and psychoanalysis work. It was written based on his experience about the imposed war and his behavior toward a destroyed bridge in the region called "Tele Zang" in the midst of the mountains of Lorestan. This novel can be studied considering the different aspects like Freud psychoanalysis. One of the most important components of the defense mechanisms in Freud's theory is that the patients resorted to them when s/he feels anxiety. But it must be noted that war is a source of enormous stress, anxiety, and failure, so willingly or unwillingly, they will be appeared. As most researchers neglect this topic in the imposed war, therefore, وorks of the war is also fitted, this study aims at analyzing the character "Nader" based on the theories of Freud by using the varieties of defense mechanisms in order to improve his mental state. Since few studies have been done about war novels, especially from the perspective of psychoanalysis, so, this article shows that some of such novels have the countless capacities for psychoanalysis analysis especially in defense mechanisms. At the end, it shows that Nader could overcome his neuroticism by using these mechanisms.